Does your cat display peculiar behaviour like licking or chewing fabric, bags, cables, rubber, plants, straws, cardboard, and household objects?
Rest assured you’re not alone, some days our lounge resembles a paper shredding factory, while other periods our blinds have bite mark dents. Don’t even mention plastic bags, they’re the flavour of this month.
Cats who obsessively lick, nibble and/or consume items are exhibiting a form of pica.
What Is Pica?
Pica involves ingestion of non-food items. Frequently reported items which cats may chew include wool, fabric, wood, plastic, paper and plants (Case, 2003, Horwitz & Mills 2009). Often the molar teeth are used to chew holes in such materials.
Pica shouldn’t be mistaken for kitten behaviour of suckling which might persist into adulthood. When adult moggies exhibit suckling behaviours, material isn’t consumed, simply sucked repetitively and often accompanied with front paw kneading.
Likewise, many young moggies will chew and tear at objects when exhibiting predatory behaviour during play, pieces are torn off but NOT consumed.
Ingestion of bizarre objects can result in life-threatening internal blockages requiring urgent veterinary medical attention.
Hypothesized Causes Of Pica
Since there’s no test to diagnose pica, veterinary professionals depend on owner’s home observations and note-taking. Theories of pica include:
Pica is generally seen in breeds like Siamese, Tonkinese, and Burmese who are predisposed to eating wool or wool sucking. Other domestic kitties with no known Oriental ancestry like DSH and Ragdolls may also endure pica.
Cats with prolonged nutritional deficiencies lacking adequate fat, minerals and/or vitamins in their food may ingest non-edible material, whilst other cases could also be due to dietary imbalance from lack of roughage, although a clear dietary insufficiency has yet to be documented.
Licking or absorption of weird substances has been correlated to Endocrine and Gastrointestinal conditions such as Hyperthyroidism, Diabetes, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Gastric Motility, and hookworm infestation.
Two studies uncovered a high prevalence of pica diagnosed in cats with immune-mediated Hemolytic Anaemia, Pyruvate kinase deficiencies, and Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), but with lower occurrences (Isabelle Demontigny-Bédard, 2015). Infrequently, eating inappropriate things may also happen with medical issues like liver disease.
Additionally, neurological disorders and cancer (i.e., brain tumours) can disrupt appetite control and contribute to uncommon cravings resulting in pica.
Pica prevalence is considerably greater in felines housed exclusively indoor. Potential contributing factors include boredom, anxiety, frustration and lack of social contact.
High reinforcement history to things can have an accentuating component, increasing the likelihood of the behaviour repeated, inadvertently reinforced by the owner when the cat steals food items with plastic wrapping.
According to certain literature pica may be considered an obsessive-compulsive disorder in anxious moggies. Gnawing or sucking on objects releases endorphins and serves as comfort.
Distress can exacerbate pre-existing pica and chomping of things is also used as a coping mechanism.
Stressful life events like house move, new pet adoption and owner death can trigger compulsive ingestion of non-food items in individual cats.
Symptoms Of Pica
If your cat suffers from pica, they must be closely monitored. Watch out for the subsequent gastrointestinal signs just in case of blockages:
- Changes in eating patterns (decreased appetite)
Rule out any medical conditions with a thorough vet examination before seeking a behavioural evaluation. Therapy options for mild cases:
Minimise Exposure To Favoured Substance
- Removing the item from view could be a sufficient measure in simple cases to manage the problem.
- Minimise access to plants by placing them outside, hide plastic bags in cupboards, keep clothes together with socks in drawers and manage the environment to reduce enticement to preferred substances.
- Create a haven with escape routes in addition to comfortable sanctuaries for retreat.
- Provide consistent daily social interaction ensuring your furry companion has full control able to escape when feel threatened.
- Use variety of coping strategies and rotation in multi-cat situations to assist non-related adult cats successfully get along.
Boost Environmental Stimulation
- Boost your cat’s surroundings by adding vertical space like a catwalk, incorporate frequent play sessions to increase environmental stimulus especially for junior kitties with a high exploratory drive.
- Redirect and motivate undesirable behaviour with the help of interactive prey type toys plus clicker training.
- Build a catio or a bird feeding station for your cat’s viewing satisfaction and for the confident outdoorsy moggie incorporate garden adventures to alleviate boredom including frustration.
Alternate Feeding Methods
- Substitute eating activities with the utilization of puzzle feeders then encourage foraging with hidden food.
- Oral stimulation with the aid of cat grass, dental chews and durable munch toys can help redirect their instinctive prey drive.
Dietary Modification And Supplementation
Cats with pica benefit from a dietary modification to a high fibre content diet moreover introduction of probiotics, digestive enzymes and half-teaspoon-soaked psyllium husks in wet food.
Soft hide sticks with a drop of fish oil along with mastication substances like chicken wing or small raw meaty bones (human grade following one-week freezing period) could also be valuable.
Other felines may like change to a more natural raw diet with fibrous muscle and organ tissue. Always talk to your vet about appropriate diet especially for cats with GI issues.
If pica is a compulsive behaviour, refer to a certified behaviour specialist, since medication might have to be contemplated.
Pica can cause owner emotional distress, expensive vet surgery and even cause pet relinquishment. Absorption of inedible material requires veterinary intervention together with behavioural therapy.
Although pica may be a lifelong disorder, it can be managed or resolved with appropriate chews along with environmental and diet modification.
Frequently Asked Questions:
Why is my cat suddenly chewing on everything?
A sudden chewing onset can be due to stress, anxiety, diet change, acute problem of intestinal parasites or a medical cause.
Cats consuming substances due to medical reasons will exhibit further symptoms that signal they’re unwell requiring veterinary examination.
Will my cat outgrow chewing?
Pica can start as early as 12 weeks or perhaps at an earlier age when kittens arrive at their new home.
Certain felines can even munch on their bedding however will grow out of it by 1 – 2 years old, whilst for others the habit will continue into adulthood requiring behavioural intercession.
What should I feed my cat with pica?
Cats with pica benefit from a dietary modification to a high fibre content diet moreover introduction of probiotics and chew substances. Please consult your vet to make sure your pet gets the best nutritional care possible.
Care, I. C. (2018, September 26). Pica in Cats. Retrieved March 12, 2021, from ICatCare: https://icatcare.org/advice/pica-in-cats/
Center, C. U. (2015, October). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from CatWatch: https://www.catwatchnewsletter.com/health/when-they-ingest-non-food-objects/
Isabelle Demontigny-Bédard, G. B.-C. (2015). Characterization of pica and chewing behaviors in privately owned cats: a case-control study. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 1-6. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1098612X15591589?journalCode=jfma
Isabelle Demontigny-Bédard, G. B.-C. (2015). Characterization of pica and chewing behaviors in privately owned cats: a case-control study. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 1-6. Retrieved March 11, 2021
Isabelle Demontigny-Bédard, M.-C. B. (2019, October). Medical and behavioral evaluation of 8 cats presenting with fabric ingestion: An exploratory pilot study. CVJ, 1080-1088. Retrieved March 10, 2021
Marta Amat, T. C. (2015). Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 18, 577-586. Retrieved March 13, 2021, from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1098612X15590867
Rachel M Korman,. N. (2012). A retrospective study of 180 anaemic cats: features, aetiologies and survival data. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 15, 81-90. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1098612X12461008